This article is the second in my series on what’s involved in planning for the worst. In the last one I gave an overview on who and what is involved in the process. This time I’ll lay out some of the legal work that may need to be done in order to put your plan into effect. The goal here is for your business to continue relatively smoothly if you die or are incapacitated. The most obvious benefit is that you or your beneficiaries will have a chance to receive the value of the business – which could be lost if you’re not there to run the business.
There are a bunch of great resources out there, largely from insurance companies and banks, about business continuation planning. Though it may seem like a lot to wrap your head around, the legal side is fairly simple. The first step is to identify what the essential parts of your business are. What’s the bare minimum that must be done in order to keep the doors open? Who’s capable of doing those things? What’s to become of your control of the business, and your share of the profits? Once you’ve figured that out, your business advisers can help you to get the paperwork done. That paperwork typically includes:
While not necessarily a legal document itself, it becomes enforceable when the directors or officers of the corporation resolve to adopt it. The continuation plan should include who is to assume what responsibilities, who is to oversee the transition, what is to happen with loans that are personally guaranteed, key contacts at customers, suppliers, service providers, advisers, and creditors, insurance policy information, where business records are kept, and any other information that someone taking over your role will need to know about the business.
The continuation plan should be kept in the company’s minute book.
A shareholders’ agreement is a contract between the owners of a company as to how they’ll run the corporation. It can also force those who become shareholders in the future – perhaps resulting from your death or incapacity – to do certain things in running the business. I’ve talked about why you should have one for your business in an earlier article. I’ll write another one soon about what should go in to one… but the continuation plan for the death or incapacity of key people should be part of the shareholders’ agreement. If you have one in place already, work with your lawyer to make sure it jives with the continuation plan. If you don’t have one in place, it’s a good idea to make one.
Though it’s not a purely legal issue, insurance is an enabler for most continuation plans. It’s common for the company or your co-owners to take out insurance on you, and the other main players in the business. There are a number of different types of insurance, each with strengths and limitations. The goal is to ensure that there’s cash available to tide the business over and find someone to fill in for the person that’s been lost. Each business will be different, and a good insurance agent can give you the full slate of options, and help you to choose one that works for your company.
It’s important that your insurance agent and lawyer get in touch to discuss the policy you’ve selected so that the legal documents mesh with the policy. Your lawyer can also help you to understand what’s covered, and what’s not under the policy. Once you understand where the gaps are, you can come up with ways to minimize the risks that remain.
Picking someone to step into your shoes is one thing. Giving them the lawful authority to make decisions in your place can be another one altogether. You should consider appointing the chosen one as an officer of the corporation, and giving them conditional authority to speak and sign to bind the company in legal documents. They should know where the corporate records are kept, and be put in touch with key advisers including the corporation’s lawyer, accountant, and insurance agent.
When the continuation plan is made, you should ensure that your business books and records are up to date and complete, including the minute book, government filings, and accounting records. Your successor will have enough to deal with already, without having to deal with figuring out what state the company is in first. The corporate minute book should also include a resolution approving the contingency plan, which will prove useful in dealing with outside institutions – banks in particular.
Wills & Domestic Contracts
Not only should you have a will in place that deals with your interest in the company, but it should be in harmony with the continuation plan. If the corporation has decided that your control of the business should pass to one person, but your will passes all of your property to your spouse, there’s a huge potential for conflict. Many people use separate wills for their personal and business assets. Domestic contracts – while painful to negotiate – can be used to protect control of the corporation as something that’s not included in the marital assets in the event of separation or divorce.
Powers of Attorney
A Power of Attorney for property is a legal document that authorizes someone to act for you in making decisions in the event that you’re incapacitated. Banks and other creditors will want to see this, possibly along with the resolutions authorizing the contingency plan and granting signing authority before they’ll deal with someone they don’t know. These are usually made or updated at the same time as your will.
Many owner-operators work without a written contract of employment in place with their company. It’s generally understood that as an owner-operator, your responsibilities and risks are almost indefinite. It is a good idea to put an employment contract in place with yourself – a description of duties, salary, and benefits at a minimum. This will help to set expectations for what’s expected of and given to your replacement.
A current employee who steps up into your role will be taking on a great deal more responsibility, and assuming more personal risk in the form of director or officer liability than they had before. This type of change to the employer-employee relationship is something that should be down on paper to protect both of you. Salary, responsibilities, and expectations may all change in the new contract. It’s also good practice to give some form of protection, called indemnity, to those who run the company.
If there’s nobody in your company who could step up to run it, a manager may need to be hired from the outside. If you want to have any say over their role, and any limits on their authority, you’ll have to set those out in advance. Again, the starting point could be your employment contract.
Again, insurance can be used to cover some or all of the expense of hiring, training, and paying a new employee.
Training your possible successor is the most important piece of the puzzle. They may show the potential to run the business by having the right skill set, but will probably need time to be brought up to speed on how the business works. It’s never too early to start. The up-sides of having someone who’s capable of running the business are many – you may even be able to take a holiday for once!
It’s also important to be mindful of avoiding trying to run the business from beyond the grave. A properly trained and equipped successor will still have their own ideas, and should have the flexibility to see them to fruition.
When a thorough continuation plan is made, it’s a major step towards peace of mind for you and your dependents. If you’re laid up with an injury or illness and the business founders without you, you may not be able to pay for your own care. If you pass away, and the business you’ve worked so hard to build follows closely behind, your dependents may be left high and dry. If the business goes under, your employees and others who rely on it for their livelihood, could be in dire straits. While it’s an uncomfortable thing to talk about and plan for, it’s the responsible thing to do.
I’m happy to help you start the process, and I’ve got a good team of specialists who can guide you through the finer points of tax, employees, insurance, and financial planning should you want the help. The next article, on how to plan for your retirement, will be on its way soon!
Now, to counter all those gloomy thoughts I’ve put in your head, here are some very cute animals trying to look tough.
See you soon…